Give students ten minutes to search for the person who fits the description on the card they hold. There is no talking during this activity, but students can walk around the room. At the end of the activity, tell students to write on the card the name of the student who best matches the description.
Then have students share their results. How many students guessed correctly? Patricia McHugh, John W. Set up a circle of chairs with one less chair than the number of students in the class. Play music as the students circle around the chairs. When the music stops, the students must sit in a seat. Unlike the traditional game, the person without a seat is not out. Instead, someone must make room for that person. Then remove another seat and start the music again. You can play this game outside, and you can end it whenever you wish.
Afterward, stress the teamwork and cooperation the game took, and how students needed to accept one another to be successful. Reinforce that idea by repeating this game throughout the year. Danielle Weston, Willard School, Sanford, Maine Hands-On Activity Have students begin this activity by listing at least 25 words that describe them and the things they like.
No sentences allowed, just words! Then ask each student to use a dark pen to trace the pattern of his or her hand with the fingers spread apart. Provide another sheet of paper that the student can place on top of the tracing. Because the tracing was done with a dark pen, the outline should be visible on the sheet below.
Direct students to use the outlines as guides and to write their words around it. Provide students a variety of different colored pencils or markers to use as they write. Then invite students to share their work with the class. They might cut out the hand outlines and mount them on construction paper so you can display the hands for open house.
Then provide each student with five different-colored paper strips. Have each student write a different talent on separate paper strips, then create a mini paper chain with the strips by linking the five talents together. As students complete their mini chains, use extra strips of paper to link the mini chains together to create one long class chain.
Have students stand and hold the growing chain as you link the pieces together. Once the entire chain is constructed and linked, lead a discussion about what the chain demonstrates -- for example, all the students have talents; all the students have things they do well; together, the students have many talents; if they work together, classmates can accomplish anything; the class is stronger when students work together than when individual students work on their own.
Hang the chain in the room as a constant reminder to students of the talents they possess and the benefits of teamwork. Your school librarian might have a discard pile you can draw from. Invite students to search through the magazines for pictures, words, or anything else that might be used to describe them. Have students cut out their silhouettes, then fill them with a collage of pictures and words that express their identity. Then give each student an opportunity to share his or her silhouette with the group and talk about why he or she chose some of the elements in the collage.
Post the silhouettes to create a sense of "our homeroom. You can use such cards to gather other information too, such as school schedule, why the student signed up for the class, whether the student has a part-time job, and whether he or she has access to the Internet at home. As a final bit of information, ask the student to write a headline that best describes him or her!
This headline might be a quote, a familiar expression, or anything else. When students finish filling out the cards, give a little quiz.
Then read aloud the headlines one at a time. Ask students to write the name of the person they think each headline best describes. Who got the highest score? It seems as if parents are contacted only if there is a problem with students.
At the end of each grading period, use the home address information to send a postcard to a handful of parents to inform them about how well their child is doing. This might take a little time, but it is greatly appreciated! Pop Quiz Ahead of time, write a series of getting-to-know-you questions on slips of paper -- one question to a slip.
You can repeat some of the questions. Then fold up the slips, and tuck each slip inside a different balloon. Blow up the balloons. Give each student a balloon, and let students take turns popping their balloons and answering the questions inside. Contributor Unknown Fact or Fib? Tell students that you are going to share some information about yourself. Suggest that students take notes; as you speak, they should record what they think are the most important facts you share. When you finish your presentation, tell students that you are going to tell five things about yourself.
Four of your statements should tell things that are true and that were part of your presentation; one of the five statements is a total fib. This activity is most fun if some of the true facts are some of the most surprising things about you and if the "fib" sounds like something that could very well be true. Tell students they may refer to their notes to tell which statement is the fib. Next, invite each student to create a biography and a list of five statements -- four facts and one fib -- about himself or herself.
Mitzi Geffen Circular Fact or Fib? Organize students into two groups of equal size. One group forms a circle equally spaced around the perimeter of the classroom. There will be quite a bit of space between students. The other group of students forms a circle inside the first circle; each student faces one of the students in the first group.
Give the facing pairs of students two minutes to share their second oral "biographies. After each pair completes the activity, the students on the inside circle move clockwise to face the next student in the outer circle. Students in the outer circle remain stationary throughout the activity. When all students have had an opportunity to share their biographies with one another, ask students to take turns each sharing facts and fibs with the class. The other students refer to their notes or try to recall which fact is really a fib.
Contributor Unknown People Poems Have each child use the letters in his or her name to create an acrostic poem. Due to limited opportunities, between and there was extensive emigration, and around , Slovenes i. The area of the United States with the highest concentration of Slovenian immigrants is Cleveland, Ohio.
The other locations in the United States where many Slovenians settled were areas with substantial industrial and mining activities: The men were important as workers in the mining industry, because of some of the skills they brought from Slovenia.
Despite this, the Slovene population increased significantly. The 19th century also saw a revival of culture in the Slovene language , accompanied by a Romantic nationalist quest for cultural and political autonomy. The idea of a United Slovenia , first advanced during the revolutions of , became the common platform of most Slovenian parties and political movements in Austria-Hungary.
During the same period, Yugoslavism , an ideology stressing the unity of all South Slavic peoples , spread as a reaction to Pan-German nationalism and Italian irredentism. Hundreds of thousands of Slovene conscripts were drafted into the Austro-Hungarian Army , and over 30, of them died. Hundreds of thousands of Slovenes from Gorizia and Gradisca were resettled in refugee camps in Italy and Austria.
While the refugees in Austria received decent treatment, the Slovene refugees in Italian camps were treated as state enemies, and several thousand died of malnutrition and diseases between and The Treaty of Rapallo of left approximately , out of the total population of 1. This caused the mass emigration of Slovenes, especially the middle class, from the Slovenian Littoral and Trieste to Yugoslavia and South America.
Those who remained organized several connected networks of both passive and armed resistance. The best known was the militant anti-fascist organization TIGR , formed in in order to fight Fascist oppression of the Slovene and Croat populations in the Julian March. The proposal was picked up by most Slovene parties, and a mass mobilization of Slovene civil society, known as the Declaration Movement , followed. On 29 October, independence was declared by a national gathering in Ljubljana, and by the Croatian parliament, declaring the establishment of the new State of Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs.
The main territory of Slovenia, being the most industrialized and westernized compared to other less developed parts of Yugoslavia, became the main center of industrial production: Compared to Serbia, for example, Slovenian industrial production was four times greater; and it was 22 times greater than in Macedonia. The interwar period brought further industrialization in Slovenia, with rapid economic growth in the s, followed by a relatively successful economic adjustment to the economic crisis and Great Depression.
Following a plebiscite in October , the Slovene-speaking southern Carinthia was ceded to Austria. With the Treaty of Trianon , on the other hand, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was awarded the Slovene-inhabited Prekmurje region, formerly part of Austro-Hungary.
Slovenes living in territories that fell under the rule of the neighboring states—Italy, Austria, and Hungary—were subjected to assimilation. Axis forces invaded Yugoslavia in April and defeated the country in a few weeks. The southern part, including Ljubljana, was annexed to Italy, while the Nazis took over the northern and eastern parts of the country.
In addition, some 46, Slovenes were expelled to Germany, including children who were separated from their parents and allocated to German families. The Slovene language was banned from education, and its use in the public life was limited to the absolute minimum. After the resistance started in summer , Italian violence against the Slovene civilian population escalated, as well. The Italian authorities deported some 25, people to the concentration camps , which equaled 7.
The most infamous ones were Rab and Gonars. To counter the Communist-led insurgence, the Italians sponsored local anti-guerrilla units, formed mostly by the local conservative Catholic Slovene population that resented the revolutionary violence of the partisans. They united the Slovene anti-Communist counter-insurgence into the Slovene Home Guard and appointed a puppet regime in the Province of Ljubljana.
The anti-Nazi resistance however expanded, creating its own administrative structures as the basis for Slovene statehood within a new, federal and socialist Yugoslavia. Slovenia joined the federation as a constituent republic, led by its own pro-Communist leadership. The small Jewish community, mostly settled in the Prekmurje region, perished in in the holocaust of Hungarian Jews. The German speaking minority, amounting to 2. Hundreds of Istrian Italians and Slovenes that opposed communism were killed in the foibe massacres , and more than 25, fled or were expelled from Slovenian Istria in the aftermath of the war.
A socialist state was established, but because of the Tito—Stalin split in , economic and personal freedoms were broader than in the rest of the Eastern Bloc. After the failure of forced collectivisation that was attempted from —53, a policy of gradual economic liberalisation, known as workers self-management , was introduced under the advice and supervision of the Slovene Marxist theoretician and Communist leader Edvard Kardelj , the main ideologue of the Titoist path to socialism.
Suspected opponents of this policy both from within and outside the Communist party were persecuted and thousands were sent to the Goli otok. The late s saw a policy of liberalisation in the cultural sphere, as well, and limited border crossing into neighboring Italy and Austria was allowed again. Until the s, Slovenia enjoyed relatively broad autonomy within the federation. In a group of intellectuals demanded Slovene independence in the 57th edition of the magazine Nova revija.
Demands for democratisation and more Slovenian independence were sparked off. A mass democratic movement, coordinated by the Committee for the Defence of Human Rights , pushed the Communists in the direction of democratic reforms.
In September , numerous constitutional amendments were passed to introduce parliamentary democracy to Slovenia. The initial revolutionary events in Slovenia pre-dated the Revolutions of in Eastern Europe by almost a year, but went largely unnoticed by international observers. In December , a new constitution was adopted,  followed in by the laws on denationalisation and privatization.
Slovenia joined the European Union on 1 May Slovenia has one Commissioner in the European Commission , and seven Slovene parliamentarians were elected to the European Parliament at elections on 13 June Slovenia subsequently succeeded in meeting the Maastricht criteria and joined the Eurozone the first transition country to do so on 1 January It was the first post-Communist country to hold the Presidency of the Council of the European Union , for the first six months of The disillusionment with domestic socio-economic elites at municipal and national levels was expressed at the — Slovenian protests on a wider scale than in the smaller 15 October protests.
Slovenia is situated in Central and Southeastern Europe touching the Alps and bordering the Mediterranean. The 15th meridian east almost corresponds to the middle line of the country in the direction west-east. Four major European geographic regions meet in Slovenia: On the Pannonian plain to the East and Northeast, toward the Croatian and Hungarian borders, the landscape is essentially flat. The areas are covered mostly by beech , fir -beech and beech- oak forests and have a relatively high production capacity.
Slovenia is in a rather active seismic zone because of its position on the small Adriatic Plate , which is squeezed between the Eurasian Plate to the north and the African Plate to the south and rotates counter-clockwise. Additionally, a network of seismic stations is active throughout the country. The newer regionalisation by Ivan Gams divided Slovenia in the following macroregions: According to a newer natural geographic regionalisation, the country consists of four macroregions.
These are the Alpine, the Mediterranean, the Dinaric, and the Pannonian landscapes. Macroregions are defined according to major relief units the Alps, the Pannonian plain, the Dinaric mountains and climate types submediterranean, temperate continental, mountain climate. Protected areas of Slovenia include national parks, regional parks, and nature parks, the largest of which is Triglav National Park. Slovenia is located in temperate latitudes. The climate is also influenced by the variety of relief, and the influence of the Alps and the Adriatic Sea.
In the northeast, the continental climate type with greatest difference between winter and summer temperatures prevails. In the coastal region, there is sub- Mediterranean climate. There is a strong interaction between these three climatic systems across most of the country. Compared to Western Europe, Slovenia is not very windy, because it lies in the slipstream of the Alps.
The average wind speeds are lower than in the plains of the nearby countries. Due to the rugged terrain, local vertical winds with daily periods are present. Besides these, there are three winds of particular regional importance: The jugo and the bora are characteristic of the Littoral.
Whereas the jugo is humid and warm, the bora is usually cold and gusty. The foehn is typical of the Alpine regions in the north of Slovenia. Generally present in Slovenia are the northeast wind, the southeast wind and the north wind. The territory of Slovenia mainly 16, square kilometers or 6, square miles, i.
These two parts are divided into smaller units in regard to their central rivers, the Mura River basin, the Drava River basin, the Sava River basin with Kolpa River basin, and the basin of the Adriatic rivers. One of the reasons is undoubtedly that most of the rivers rise on the mountainous territory of Slovenia.
But this does not mean that Slovenia has no problems with surface water and groundwater quality, especially in areas with intensive farming. Slovenia signed the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity on 13 June and became a party to the convention on 9 July Slovenia is distinguished by an exceptionally wide variety of habitats,  due to the contact of geological units and biogeographical regions, and due to human influences.
There are numerous deer , roe deer , boar , and hares. Trapping these animals is a long tradition and is a part of the Slovenian national identity. Some important carnivores include the Eurasian lynx ,   European wild cats , foxes especially the red fox , and European jackal. According to recent estimates, Slovenia has c.
Slovenia is home to an exceptionally diverse number of cave species, with a few tens of endemic species. The only regular species of cetaceans found in the northern Adriatic sea is the bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus. There are a wide variety of birds, such as the tawny owl , the long-eared owl , the eagle owl , hawks , and short-toed eagles. Other birds of prey have been recorded, as well as a growing number of ravens , crows and magpies migrating into Ljubljana and Maribor where they thrive.
There are 13 domestic animals native to Slovenia,  of eight species hen, pig, dog, horse, sheep, goat, honey bee, and cattle. Slovenia is also home to the wels catfish. More than 2, fungal species have been recorded from Slovenia  and, since that figure does not include lichen-forming fungi, the total number of Slovenian fungi already known is undoubtedly much higher.
Many more remain to be discovered. Slovenia is the third most-forested country in Europe,  with In the mountains, spruce , fir , and pine are more common. Pine trees grow on the Karst Plateau , although only one-third of the region is covered by pine forest. The tree line is at 1, to 1, metres 5, to 5, feet. Slovenia harbors many plants of ethnobotanically useful groups. Of 59 known species of ethnobotanical importance, some species such as Aconitum napellus , Cannabis sativa and Taxus baccata are restricted for use as per the Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia.
Slovenia is a parliamentary democracy republic with a multi-party system. The head of state is the president , who is elected by popular vote and has an important integrative role. He or she mainly has a representative role and is the commander-in-chief of the Slovenian armed forces. The legislative authority is held by the bicameral Parliament of Slovenia , characterised by an asymmetric duality.
Of those, 88 are elected by all the citizens in a system of proportional representation , whereas two are elected by the registered members of the autochthonous Hungarian and Italian minorities.
Election takes place every four years. It later attracted much criticism by neo-liberal economists, who demanded a less gradual approach. The — period was characterized by over-enthusiasm after joining the EU. There was over-borrowing from foreign banks and then over-crediting of customers, including local business magnates.
The proposed reforms were postponed in a referendum. The left-wing government was ousted with a vote of no confidence. Judicial powers in Slovenia are executed by judges , who are elected by the National Assembly. Judicial power in Slovenia is implemented by courts with general responsibilities and specialised courts that deal with matters relating to specific legal areas.
The State Prosecutor is an independent state authority responsible for prosecuting cases brought against those suspected of committing criminal offences.
The Constitutional Court , composed of nine judges elected for nine-year terms, decides on the conformity of laws with the Constitution; all laws and regulations must also conform with the general principles of international law and with ratified international agreements. The Slovenian Armed Forces provide military defence independently or within an alliance, in accordance with international agreements.
Since conscription was abolished in , it is organized as a fully professional standing army. In , military spending was an estimated 0. They have participated in peace support operations and humanitarian activities. Among others, Slovenian soldiers are a part of international forces serving in Bosnia and Herzegovina , Kosovo , and Afghanistan.
Officially, Slovenia is subdivided into municipalities eleven of which have the status of urban municipalities. The municipalities are the only bodies of local autonomy in Slovenia. In the majority of municipalities, the municipal council is elected through the system of proportional representation ; only a few smaller municipalities use the plurality voting system.
In the urban municipalities, the municipal councils are called town or city councils. There is no official intermediate unit between the municipalities and the Republic of Slovenia. The 62 administrative districts, officially called "Administrative Units" upravne enote , are only subdivisions of the national government administration and are named after their respective bases of government offices.
Traditional regions were based on the former Habsburg crown lands that included Carniola , Carinthia , Styria , and the Littoral. Stronger than with either the Carniola as a whole, or with Slovenia as the state, Slovenes historically tend to identify themselves with the traditional regions of Slovene Littoral , Prekmurje , and even traditional sub regions, such as Upper, Lower and, to a lesser extent, Inner Carniola.
The 12 statistical regions have no administrative function and are subdivided into two macroregions for the purpose of the Regional policy of the European Union. Since , it has been member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. The growth surge was fuelled by debt, particularly among firms, and especially in construction.
The financial crisis of — and European sovereign-debt crisis had a significant impact on the domestic economy. An increasing burden for the Slovenian economy has been its rapidly ageing population. In August , the year-on-year contraction was 0. The decrease in domestic consumption has been attributed to the fiscal austerity , to the freeze on budget expenditure in the final months of ,  to the failure of the efforts to implement economic reforms , to inappropriate financing, and to the decrease in exports.
Fiscal actions and legislations aiming on the reduction of spendings as well as several privatisations supported an economic recovery as from Almost two-thirds of people are employed in services, and over one-third in industry and construction. High level of openness makes Slovenia extremely sensitive to economic conditions in its main trading partners and changes in its international price competitiveness.
By , the A large pumped-storage hydro power plant Kozjak on the Drava River is in the planning stage. Slovenia offers tourists a wide variety of natural and cultural amenities. Different forms of tourism have developed. The tourist gravitational area is considerably large, however the tourist market is small. Other mountain ranges include Kamnik—Savinja Alps , the Karawanks , and Pohorje , popular with skiers and hikers.
The Karst Plateau in the Slovene Littoral gave its name to karst , a landscape shaped by water dissolving the carbonate bedrock, forming caves. Important parts of tourism in Slovenia include congress and gambling tourism. Most of foreign tourists to Slovenia come from the key European markets: The location at the junction of major geographic units and the area being traversed by major rivers have been the reasons for the intersection of the main transport routes in Slovenia.
Their course was established already in the Antiquity. A particular geographic advantage in recent times has been the location of the intersection of the Pan-European transport corridors V the fastest link between the North Adriatic, and Central and Eastern Europe and X linking Central Europe with the Balkans in the country. This gives it a special position in the European social, economic and cultural integration and restructuring. The major Slovenian port is the Port of Koper.
It is the largest Northern Adriatic port in terms of container transport,  with almost , TEUs annually  and lines to all major world ports. Passenger transport mainly takes place with Italy and Croatia. Air transport in Slovenia is quite low,  but has significantly grown since Slovenia is among the European countries with the most pronounced ageing of its population, ascribable to a low birth rate and increasing life expectancy.
In , the suicide rate in Slovenia was 22 per , persons per year, which places Slovenia among the highest ranked European countries in this regard. The differences between regions and the genders are pronounced. According to this definition statistical regions are classified:.
The only large town is the capital, Ljubljana. Other medium-sized towns include Maribor, Celje, and Kranj. The official language in Slovenia is Slovene , which is a member of the South Slavic language group. Slovene is a highly diverse Slavic language in terms of dialects ,  with different degrees of mutual intelligibility. Accounts of the number of dialects range from as few as seven    dialects, often considered dialect groups or dialect bases that are further subdivided into as many as 50 dialects.
Hungarian and Italian , spoken by the respective minorities, enjoy the status of official languages in the ethnically mixed regions along the Hungarian and Italian borders, to the extent that even the passports issued in those areas are bilingual. In around 0. Hungarian is co-official with Slovene in 30 settlements in 5 municipalities whereof 3 are officially bilingual. Italian is co-official with Slovene in 25 settlements in 4 municipalities all of them officially bilingual. Romani ,  spoken in as the native language by 0.
Romani-speakers mainly belong to the geographically dispersed and marginalized Roma community. A significant number of people in Slovenia speak a variant of Serbo-Croatian Serbian , Croatian , Bosnian , or Montenegrin as their native language. These are mostly immigrants who moved to Slovenia from other former Yugoslav republics from the s to the late s, and their descendants.
Regarding the knowledge of foreign languages, Slovenia ranks among the top European countries. By the beginning of there were about , people with a foreign citizenship residing in the country making up 5.
The number of people immigrating into Slovenia rose steadily from  and has been increasing even more rapidly in recent years. After Slovenia joined the EU in , the annual number of immigrants doubled by and increased by half yet again by As to emigration, between and World War I many men left Slovenia to work in mining areas in other nations. The United States in particular has been a common choice for emigration, with the US Census showing that there were already ", persons in the USA of Slovenian mother tongue".
These areas attracted first many single men who often boarded with Slovenian families. Go round the country, go to the industrial towns, go to the farms and you will see a state of prosperity such as we have never had in my lifetime — nor indeed in the history of this country. Unemployment figures  show that unemployment was significantly lower during the Golden Age than before or after:. The period from the end of World War II to the early s was one of the greatest eras of economic expansion in world history.
Bill financed a well-educated work force. The middle class swelled, as did GDP and productivity. The US underwent its own golden age of economic growth. This growth was distributed fairly evenly across the economic classes, which some attribute to the strength of labor unions in this period—labor union membership peaked during the s.
Much of the growth came from the movement of low-income farm workers into better-paying jobs in the towns and cities—a process largely completed by Libertarian historian Burton W. The predicted postwar depression never happened and the economy grew rapidly as unemployment stabilized at 3.
West Germany , under Chancellor Konrad Adenauer and economic minister Ludwig Ehrhard , saw prolonged economic growth beginning in the early s. Journalists dubbed it the Wirtschaftswunder or "Economic Miracle".
West Germany played a central role in the creation of European cooperation; it joined NATO in and was a founding member of the European Economic Community in The post-war economic boom had many social, cultural, and political effects not least of which was the demographic bulge termed the baby boom. Movements and phenomena associated with this period include the height of the Cold War , postmodernism , decolonisation , a marked increase in consumerism , the welfare state , the space race , the Non-Aligned Movement , import substitution , counterculture of the s , opposition to the Vietnam War , the Civil Rights Movement , the sexual revolution , the beginning of second-wave feminism , and a nuclear arms race.
In the United States, the middle-class began a mass migration away from the cities and towards the suburbs. Thus, it can be summed up as a period of prosperity in which most people could enjoy a job for life, a house and a family. The sharp rise in oil prices due to the oil crisis hastened the transition to the post-industrial economy , and a multitude of social problems have since emerged. During the s steel crisis , demand for steel declined, and the Western world faced competition from newly industrialized countries.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Aftermath of World War II. The Cambridge history of twentieth-century political thought. The British Economy Since The Return of the Master. The Golden Age of Capitalism.
A Great Leap Forward: Structural Change and the Slowdown of U. The Rise and Fall of Infrastructures: Heidelberg and New York: Retrieved December 16, Retrieved October 11, Retrieved October 23, Archived from the original on 16 January Different Stances, Different Outcomes?
GDP annual comparison, CountryEconomy. Folsom; Anita Folsom FDR Goes to War: Arms race Nuclear arms race Space Race. Category Commons Portal Timeline List of conflicts.
Geography for Kids - Free Games, Fun Facts, Activities, Projects, Science Online; National Geographic for Kids; National Geographic Mapmaker Interactive - Online atlas, street maps; Fact Monster - Country profiles with geography & maps; Atlapedia - Maps and information about countries of the world.; Geographia - Features over 75 countries with on-line tourist guides, travel stories and more.
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