The word passed from England to France and Germany late in the seventeenth century and became a critical term for certain poets who scorned and rejected the models of the past; they prided themselves on their freedom from eighteenth-century poetic codes. In Germany, especially, the word was used in strong opposition to the term classical.
The grouping together of the so-called Lake poets Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Southey with Scott, Byron, Keats, and Shelley as the romantic poets is late Victorian, apparently as late as the middle s. And it should be noted that these poets did not recognize themselves as "romantic," although they were familiar with the word and recognized that their practice differed from that of the eighteenth century. The reaction to the standard literary practice and critical norms of the eighteenth century occurred in many areas and in varying degrees.
Reason no longer held the high place it had held in the eighteenth century; its place was taken by imagination, emotion, and individual sensibility. The eccentric and the singular took the place of the accepted conventions of the age. A concentration on the individual and the minute replaced the eighteenth-century insistence on the universal and the general.
Individualism replaced objective subject matter; probably at no other time has the writer used himself as the subject of his literary works to such an extent as during the romantic period. Writers tended to regard themselves as the most interesting subject for literary creation; interest in urban life was replaced by an interest in nature, particularly in untamed nature and in solitude. Classical literature quickly lost the esteem which poets like Pope had given it.
The romantic writers turned back to their own native traditions. The Medieval and Renaissance periods were ransacked for new subject matter and for literary genres that had fallen into disuse. The standard eighteenth-century heroic couplet was replaced by a variety of forms such as the ballad, the metrical romance, the sonnet, ottava nina, blank verse, and the Spenserian stanza, all of which were forms that had been neglected since Renaissance times.
The romantic writers responded strongly to the impact of new forces, particularly the French Revolution and its promise of liberty, equality, and fraternity. The humanitarianism that had been developing during the eighteenth century was taken up enthusiastically by the romantic writers.
Wordsworth, the great champion of the spiritual and moral values of physical nature, tried to show the natural dignity, goodness, and the worth of the common man. The combination of new interests, new attitudes, and fresh forms produced a body of literature that was strikingly different from the literature of the eighteenth century, but that is not to say that the eighteenth century had no influence on the romantic movement.
Practically all of the seeds of the new literary crop had been sown in the preceding century. Hobbes, , , Essentially, Hobbes believed certain aspects of human life would always bring man into conflict with each other, constantly balancing a desire for power with an aversion to death or injury.
This system is precarious though as men will always seek to recover his devolved powers and use them to his own advantage and to prevent this, these powers must be surrendered to a sovereign.
Furthermore, just because we perceive a cause and effect based on our past experience there is nothing that compels this necessary connection in the future Hume, , , Thus the exclusive use of reason as a methodology for understanding the world and its laws was effectively challenged by reason. Specifically, thinkers were both encouraged further in the scientific method, induction rather than deduction. The search for the fundamental laws governing the universe and human behavior continued but empirical and comparative approaches prospered.
Smith saw societies as moving though distinct economic phases influenced by their level of resources, government and whether or not they are at war. The French Revolution, and the shock waves it sent throughout Europe, was considered by some to be the natural result of applied Enlightenment principles. This appeal to the values of emotion and a rejection of the primacy of rationality is characteristic of Romanticism which is echoed throughout the literature and music of the period.
However, to view it independently or entirely in opposition to the Enlightenment is fallacious, it is very much a continuation and expansion of some of the key ideas:. As a final point, and to return to the assertion of the essay title, in could be argued that in some ways the analogy of the Romantic Movement to that which is female is particularly appropriate given later structuralist thought. You can order a custom essay, term paper, research paper, thesis or dissertation on Romanticism topics at our professional custom essay writing service which provides students with custom papers written by highly qualified academic writers.
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Romanticism in literature, began around and lasted until Different from the classical ways of Neoclassical Age(), it relied on imagination, idealization of nature and freedom of thought and expression.
Romantic literature generated a different ‘creative spirit’ that displays itself in the poetry of Wordsworth, Coleridge, Shelley, Keats, Byron and in the prose of De Quincey, Lamb, .
The Romanticism was a period in which authors left classicism, age of reason, in the old world and started to offered imagination, emotions and a new literature that toward nature, humanity and society to espouse freedom and individualism. Romanticism is not the bastard child of the Enlightenment but its mistress’. Discuss with reference to ideas about ‘savage’ peoples. In this essay on Romanticism I intend to review some of the key ideas from political and economic philosophy and the general themes that characterised the thinking of the two movements. I hope to trace the course of the .
English literature - The Romantic period: As a term to cover the most distinctive writers who flourished in the last years of the 18th century and the first decades of the 19th, “Romantic” is indispensable but also a little misleading: there was no self-styled “Romantic movement” at the time, and the great writers of the period did not call themselves . Realism expressed a message that depicted situations realistically, whereas romanticism illustrated messages by using fiction. Both are informative reflections of American life and culture. Works Cited. Campbell, Donna M. "Realism in American Literature, ". Literary Movements. Dept. of English, Washington State University. 07 Sept